history and evolution of computer pdf

History And Evolution Of Computer Pdf

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In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things: The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data: Vacuum Tubes s - one bit on the size of a thumb; Transistors s and s - one bit on the size of a fingernail; Integrated Circuits s and 70s - thousands of bits on the size of a hand Silicon computer chips s and on - millions of bits on the size of a finger nail.

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History of Computers

In fact, calculation underlies many activities that are not normally thought of as mathematical. Walking across a room, for instance, requires many complex, albeit subconscious, calculations. Computers, too, have proved capable of solving a vast array of problems, from balancing a checkbook to even—in the form of guidance systems for robots—walking across a room. Before the true power of computing could be realized, therefore, the naive view of calculation had to be overcome. The inventors who laboured to bring the computer into the world had to learn that the thing they were inventing was not just a number cruncher, not merely a calculator. For example, they had to learn that it was not necessary to invent a new computer for every new calculation and that a computer could be designed to solve numerous problems, even problems not yet imagined when the computer was built. They also had to learn how to tell such a general problem-solving computer what problem to solve.

Summary pf History and Evolution of Computers

The history of the personal computer as a mass-market consumer electronic device began with the microcomputer revolution of the s. A personal computer is one intended for interactive individual use, as opposed to a mainframe computer where the end user's requests are filtered through operating staff, or a time-sharing system in which one large processor is shared by many individuals. After the development of the microprocessor , individual personal computers were low enough in cost that they eventually became affordable consumer goods. Early personal computers — generally called microcomputers — were sold often in electronic kit form and in limited numbers, and were of interest mostly to hobbyists and technicians. Mauchly 's vision of future computing as detailed at a recent meeting of the Institute of Industrial Engineers. Mauchly stated, "There is no reason to suppose the average boy or girl cannot be master of a personal computer ". In , a manufacturer took the risk of referring to their product this way, when Hewlett-Packard advertised their "Powerful Computing Genie" as "The New Hewlett-Packard A personal computer".


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History of computing hardware

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The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, like the abacus , were referred to as calculating machines or calculators and other proprietary names. The machine operator was called the computer.

The first computer was conceived as a machine of cogs and gears Figure 1. In the s, a hardware company called IBM footnote 1 emerged as the computing leader. In the s, however, software became increasingly important, and by the s a software company called Microsoft footnote 2 had become the computing frontline leader by giving ordinary people tools like word-processing.

Беккер вдруг понял, что непроизвольно рванулся вперед, перед его глазами маячил только один образ - черная помада на губах, жуткие тени под глазами и эти волосы… заплетенные в три торчащие в разные стороны косички. Красную, белую и синюю.

 - Мне показалось, что я уловил в вашей речи бургосский акцент. Сам я из Валенсии. Что привело вас в Севилью. - Я торговец ювелирными изделиями. Жемчугами из Майорки.

 - Что… Но было уже поздно. Дэвид положил трубку. Она долго лежала без сна, ожидая его звонка.

 Пожалуйста, сядь, Сьюзан.

Однако одиночество не принесло ей успокоения. В голове у Сьюзан беспрестанно крутилась мысль о контактах Танкадо с Хейлом. Кто будет охранять охранников. - подумала. Quis custodiet ipsos custodes.

 Никаких. Продолжай движение. ГЛАВА 78 Джабба обливался потом перед спутанными проводами: он все еще лежал на спине, зажав в зубах портативный фонарик. Ему было не привыкать работать допоздна даже по уикэндам; именно эти сравнительно спокойные часы в АНБ, как правило, были единственным временем, когда он мог заниматься обслуживанием компьютерной техники.

 - Ах да… Я, кажется, что-то такое читала. - Не очень правдоподобное заявление.

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