# Relativity And Time Dilation Pdf

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Time and the Metaphysics of Relativity pp Cite as. The relativity of simultaneity and the relativity of length lead naturally to the strangest consequences of relativity theory: time dilation and length contraction.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. At the intersection of quantum theory and relativity lies the possibility of a clock experiencing a superposition of proper times.

## Length contraction

Formulate conclusions of the theory of special relativity, noting the assumptions that were made in deriving it. According to the theory of special relativity, it is impossible to say in an absolute sense whether two distinct events occur at the same time if those events are separated in space, such as a car crash in London and another in New York. The question of whether the events are simultaneous is relative: in some reference frames the two accidents may happen at the same time, in other frames in a different state of motion relative to the events the crash in London may occur first, and still in other frames, the New York crash may occur first. If we imagine one reference frame assigns precisely the same time to two events that are at different points in space, a reference frame that is moving relative to the first will generally assign different times to the two events. This is illustrated in the ladder paradox, a thought experiment which uses the example of a ladder moving at high speed through a garage. In , Albert Einstein abandoned the classical aether and emphasized the significance of relativity of simultaneity to our understanding of space and time. He deduced the failure of absolute simultaneity from two stated assumptions: 1 the principle of relativity—the equivalence of inertial frames, such that the laws of physics apply equally in all inertial coordinate systems; 2 the constancy of the speed of light detected in empty space, independent of the relative motion of its source.

Length contraction is the phenomenon that a moving object's length is measured to be shorter than its proper length , which is the length as measured in the object's own rest frame. Length contraction is only in the direction in which the body is travelling. For standard objects, this effect is negligible at everyday speeds, and can be ignored for all regular purposes, only becoming significant as the object approaches the speed of light relative to the observer. Length contraction was postulated by George FitzGerald and Hendrik Antoon Lorentz to explain the negative outcome of the Michelson—Morley experiment and to rescue the hypothesis of the stationary aether Lorentz—FitzGerald contraction hypothesis. In Joseph Larmor developed a model in which all forces are considered to be of electromagnetic origin, and length contraction appeared to be a direct consequence of this model. Eventually, Albert Einstein was the first [4] to completely remove the ad hoc character from the contraction hypothesis, by demonstrating that this contraction did not require motion through a supposed aether, but could be explained using special relativity , which changed our notions of space, time, and simultaneity.

## Quantum clocks observe classical and quantum time dilation

The length of any object in a moving frame will appear foreshortened in the direction of motion, or contracted. The amount of contraction can be calculated from the Lorentz transformation. The length is maximum in the frame in which the object is at rest. A clock in a moving frame will be seen to be running slow, or "dilated" according to the Lorentz transformation. The time will always be shortest as measured in its rest frame.

Derivation of Time Dilation n . Imagine a light clock which consists of two mirrors and beam of light reflecting back and forth between the mirror n . One “tick” is.

## Time Dilation and Length Contraction

In special relativity, an observer in inertial i. A second inertial observer, who is in relative motion with respect to the first, however, will disagree with the first observer regarding which events are simultaneous with that given event. Neither observer is wrong in this determination; rather, their disagreement merely reflects the fact that simultaneity is an observer-dependent notion in special relativity. A notion of simultaneity is required in order to make a comparison of the rates of clocks carried by the two observers.

How does the elapsed time that the astronaut measures in the spacecraft compare with the elapsed time that an earthbound observer measures by observing what is happening in the spacecraft? Examining this question leads to a profound result. The elapsed time for a process depends on which observer is measuring it. In this case, the time measured by the astronaut within the spaceship where the astronaut is at rest is smaller than the time measured by the earthbound observer to whom the astronaut is moving.

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Он мечтал о ней по ночам, плакал о ней во сне. Он ничего не мог с собой поделать. Она была блистательна и прекрасна, равной ей он не мог себе даже представить. Его жена долго терпела, но, увидев Сьюзан, потеряла последнюю надежду. Бев Стратмор никогда его ни в чем не обвиняла. Она превозмогала боль сколько могла, но ее силы иссякли.

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- Мы ищем совсем не. Соши показала на экран. Все сгрудились вокруг нее и прочитали текст: …распространено заблуждение, будто на Нагасаки была сброшена плутониевая бомба.

Стратмор задумался.

Это возмутительно! - взорвался Нуматака.  - Каким же образом вы выполните обещание об эксклюзивном… - Не волнуйтесь, - спокойно ответил американец.  - Эксклюзивные права у вас .

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Она кружила по пустому кабинету, все еще не преодолев ужас, который вызвало у нее общение с Хейлом. Надо выбираться из шифровалки. Черт с ней, с Цифровой крепостью.

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