# Statistical And Thermal Physics Harvey Gould And Jan Tobochnik Pdf

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## Statistical and Thermal Physics: With Computer Applications

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See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on May 2, Statistical-Thermal Physics. SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Home Explore. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Thermal and statistical physics h. Upcoming SlideShare.

Like this document? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Science. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Muhammad Irfan. Sp Raj. Khan IK. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Contents 1 From Microscopic to Macroscopic Behavior 1 1.

We note that bouncing balls come to rest and hot objects cool, and discuss how the behavior of macroscopic objects is related to the behavior of their microscopic constituents. Com- puter simulations will be introduced to demonstrate the relation of microscopic and macroscopic behavior. Examples of familiar macroscopic objects include systems such as the air in your room, a glass of water, a copper coin, and a rubber band examples of a gas, liquid, solid, and polymer, respectively.

Less familiar macroscopic systems are superconductors, cell membranes, the brain, and the galaxies. Why not? Is it relevant that these molecules are not visible to the eye? Examples of questions that we might ask about macroscopic systems include the following: 1. How does the pressure of a gas depend on the temperature and the volume of its container? How does a refrigerator work? How much energy do we need to add to a kettle of water to change it to steam?

How are the molecules arranged in a liquid? How and why does water freeze into a particular crystalline structure? Why does iron lose its magnetism above a certain temperature? What will the weather be tomorrow? Questions 1—3 are concerned with macroscopic properties such as pressure, volume, and temperature and questions related to heating and work. These questions are relevant to thermodynamics which provides a framework for relating the macroscopic properties of a system to one another.

Thermodynamics is concerned only with macroscopic quantities and ignores the microscopic variables that characterize individual molecules. Many of the applications of thermodynamics are to thermal engines, for example, the internal combustion engine and the steam turbine. Questions 4—8 relate to understanding the behavior of macroscopic systems starting from the atomic nature of matter. For example, we know that water consists of molecules of hydrogen and oxygen.

We also know that the laws of classical and quantum mechanics determine the behavior of molecules at the microscopic level.

The goal of statistical mechanics is to begin with the microscopic laws of physics that govern the behavior of the constituents of the system and deduce the properties of the system as a whole. Statistical mechanics is the bridge between the microscopic and macroscopic worlds. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics assume that the macroscopic properties of the system do not change with time on the average.

Thermodynamics describes the change of a macroscopic system from one equilibrium state to another. Questions 9 and 10 concern macro- scopic phenomena that change with time. Because un- derstanding the properties of macroscopic systems that are independent of time is easier, we will focus our attention on equilibrium systems and consider questions such as those in Questions 1—8.

We know that if we place a glass of hot water into a cool room, the hot water cools until its temperature equals that of the room. This simple observation illustrates two important properties associated with macroscopic systems — the importance of temperature and the arrow of time.

Temperature is familiar because it is associated with the physiological sensation of hot and cold and is important in our everyday experience. The direction or arrow of time is an even more subtle concept. Have you ever observed a glass of water at room temperature spontaneously become hotter? What other phenomena exhibit a direction of time? Is there a a direction of time for a single particle? There is no direction of time at the microscopic level. Nobody has observed a ball at rest spontaneously begin to bounce, and then bounce higher and higher.

Unlike generations of about a century or so ago, we know that macroscopic systems such as a glass of water and a basketball consist of many molecules. Although the intermolecular forces in water produce a complicated trajectory for each molecule, the observable properties of water are easy to describe.

Because the macroscopic behavior of water must be related in some way to the trajectories of its constituent molecules, we conclude that there must be a relation between the notion of temperature and mechanics. For this reason, as we discuss the behavior of the macroscopic properties of a glass of water and a basketball, it will be useful to discuss the relation of these properties to the motion of their constituent molecules.

What is the cause of the ball eventually coming to rest? At the microscopic level we know that the fundamental forces associated with mass, charge, and the nucleus conserve the total energy.

Conservation of energy does not explain why the inverse process does not occur, because such a process also would conserve the total energy. So a more fundamental explanation is that the ball comes to rest consistent with conservation of the total energy and consistent with some other principle of physics. We will learn For now, the nature of entropy is vague, because we do not have an entropy meter like we do for energy and temperature.

By thinking about the constituent molecules, we can gain some insight into the nature of entropy. Initially, the energy of the ball is associated with the motion of its center of mass, that is, the energy is associated with one degree of freedom. So we can hypothesize that energy has been transferred from one degree of freedom to many degrees of freedom at the same time that the total energy has been conserved.

Hence, we conclude that the entropy is a measure of how the energy is distributed over the degrees of freedom. What other quantities are associated with macroscopic systems besides temperature, energy, and entropy? We are already familiar with some of these quantities. For example, we can measure the air pressure in a basketball and its volume. More complicated quantities are the thermal conductivity of a solid and the viscosity of oil.

How are these macroscopic quantities related to each other and to the motion of the individual constituent molecules? The answers to questions such as these and the meaning of temperature and entropy will take us through many chapters. And although the total energy must be conserved in any process, the distribution of energy changes in an irreversible manner.

We also have concluded that a new concept, the entropy, needs to be introduced to explain the direction of change of the distribution of energy. Now let us take a purely macroscopic viewpoint and discuss how we can arrive at a similar qualitative conclusion about the asymmetry of nature. This viewpoint was especially important historically because of the lack of a microscopic theory of matter in the 19th century when the laws of thermodynamics were being developed.

Consider the conversion of stored energy into heating a house or a glass of water. The stored energy could be in the form of wood, coal, or animal and vegetable oils for example. We also know that if we rub our hands together, they will become warmer.

What about the process of converting stored energy into work? A single conversion of stored energy into work such as the explosion of a bomb might do useful work, such as demolishing an unwanted football stadium, but a bomb is not a useful device that can be recycled and used again.

In contrast to the primitiveness of the open hearth, we have to build an engine to do this conversion.

On the basis of macroscopic arguments alone, we cannot answer this question and have to appeal to observations. We know that some forms of stored energy are more useful than others.

## Thermal and Statistical Physics

Chapter 5 Magnetic Systemsc by Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik13 August We apply the general formalism of Statistical mechanics developed in Chapter4to the Ising model ,a model for which the interactions between the magnetic moments are important. We will findthat these interactions lead to a wide range of interesting phenomena, including the existenceof phase transitions. Computer simulations will be used extensively and a simple, but powerfulapproximation method known as mean-field theory will be ParamagnetismThe most familiar magnetic system in our everyday experience is probably the magnet on yourrefrigerator door. Model , Statistical. Link to this page:. Chapter 1 Statistical Modeling 1.

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## Thermal and Statistical Physics

Publisher : Princeton University Press Number of pages : Description : This text is about two closely related subjects: thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Computer simulations and numerical calculations are used in a variety of contexts.

By Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik. This textbook carefully develops the main ideas and techniques of statistical and thermal physics and is intended for upper-level undergraduate courses. The authors each have more than thirty years' experience in teaching, curriculum development, and research in statistical and computational physics. Statistical and Thermal Physics begins with a qualitative discussion of the relation between the macroscopic and microscopic worlds and incorporates computer simulations throughout the book to provide concrete examples of important conceptual ideas.

Мотоцикл и такси с грохотом въехали в пустой ангар. Беккер лихорадочно осмотрел его в поисках укрытия, но задняя стена ангара, громадный щит из гофрированного металла, не имела ни дверей, ни окон. Такси было уже совсем рядом, и, бросив взгляд влево, Беккер увидел, что Халохот снова поднимает револьвер. Повинуясь инстинкту, он резко нажал на тормоза, но мотоцикл не остановился на скользком от машинного масла полу.

Его партнер поймет, что АНБ не несет за нее ответственности.

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