anxiety depression and mood scale adams pdf

Anxiety Depression And Mood Scale Adams Pdf

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Anxiety and social withdrawal are considered core features of the FXS phenotype, yet there is limited diagnostic evidence of the prevalence of formal anxiety disorders in FXS. This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a sample of 58 males and 39 females with FXS ages 5. Despite a high rate of psychopharmacological treatment,

Mood diary. It was concluded that the Quick Mood Scale is potentially suitable for the assessment of drug effects in clinical pharmacology studies. View the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. No score should be given if symptoms result from physical disability or illness. Reliability and validity of an assessment instrument for anxiety, depression, and mood among individuals with mental retardation.

mood assessment scale pdf

Background: In persons with combined intellectual and sensory disabilities, mood disorders, stress reactions, and attachment problems are more prevalent. This study assessed the presence of these problems within this target population and the effects of an additional Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD. Methods: Participants were 60 persons with combined intellectual and sensory disabilities, all participants had visual impairments, 16 were deafblind.

Results: Almost every participant showed signs of a disturbed attachment. Stress and mood disorders were not prevalent. An additional ASD resulted in more disturbed attachment, manic and hyperactive behavior and social avoidance.

Conclusion: Only for disturbed attachment a relatively high prevalence was found. The presence of ASD sometimes led to a different profile of the assessed problems. Mental health and behavioral problems are very common in persons with a combination of sensory and intellectual disabilities ID.

Examples are depression or mood disorders Hurley, and strong reactions to stress Bloeming-Wolbrink et al. Behaviors indicative of insecure attachment, such as stereotyped behaviors or aggressive behaviors, are also shown often Janssen et al. In addition, both people with sensory and people with intellectual disabilities often show symptoms that are also seen in people with Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD De Bildt et al.

Note that according to Russell et al. However, in most studies people with ID are excluded from participation. Russell et al. As a result a keen follower of the literature might get the impression ASD and ID are completely discrete phenomena, whereas in reality there is large overlap. ASD in itself is also associated with more mental health problems e. Therefore, ASD in addition to sensory and intellectual disabilities is also related to high rates of mental health problems in people with multiple disabilities.

This makes the diagnosis of mental health problems very complex, since symptoms, such as stereotyped behavior, are not only indications of mental health problems, they are also core characteristics of ASD American Psychiatric Association, and are also often shown by persons with multiple disabilities without ASD Hoevenaars-van den Boom et al.

The goal of the current study is to describe the range of mental health problems in a group of people with moderate to profound intellectual disability combined with a visual impairment or deafblindness, with and without symptoms of ASD. Mild intellectual disabilities were disregarded because previous research showed that level of visual impairment is strongly correlated with moderate to profound levels of intellectual disability, with persons with severe intellectual disabilities showing more profound visual disabilities van Splunder et al.

People with sensory and intellectual disabilities can encounter problems in developing a secure attachment style Fraiberg, ; Janssen et al. This is similar to children with ASD, who are generally less securely attached to their caregivers, especially when the ASD is combined with an intellectual disability Rutgers et al. An insecure attachment relationship has severe consequences, such as disturbances in emotional well-being, the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems and inadequate reactions to stress Stor and Storsbergen, ; Fearon et al.

Persons with sensory impairments and intellectual disabilities are also thought to be more susceptible to stress. Because of their impairments, sensory information is often missed, making their everyday lives more unpredictable and thus more stressful Dickerson and Kemeny, ; Corbett et al.

Furthermore, for people with disabilities it may be more difficult to cope with these stressors, especially when they cannot seek comfort with an attachment figure Janssen et al. When there is an additional diagnosis of ASD, persons are even more susceptible to stress, for example in new and unfamiliar situations Corbett et al.

Finally, both persons with disabilities and persons with ASD have been shown to be susceptible to develop mood disorders Hurley, ; Stewart et al. In turn, mood disorders, anxiety, and stress can lead to social withdrawal and an increase in stereotyped behaviors Kraijer, ; Stewart et al. Mental health problems such as these could thus increase the severity of ASD symptoms.

This is supported by Ghaziuddin et al. Insight in prevalent mental health issues in this population is therefore helpful for treatment. A rationale for the co-occurrence of disorders in affect regulation, attachment behaviors and stress reactions has been given by Janssen et al. According to this model there is evidence that people with ID are more vulnerable to stress and use less effective coping strategies once they are confronted with stressful situations. In addition, they claim that studies on attachment indicate that people with intellectual disability are at risk for developing insecure, especially disorganized, attachment.

Stress and insecure or disorganized attachment in combination with less effective coping styles is thought to put people with intellectual disabilities at risk for developing behavior problems. The symptoms of ASD and mental health problems overlap in the population of persons with combined intellectual and sensory disabilities.

This makes it rather difficult to assess the etiology of their behaviors. A consequence is that this may lead to an overdiagnosis as well as an underdiagnosis of mental health problems in this target group.

This phenomenon, where behaviors are unfairly attributed to the most notable disability, is called diagnostic overshadowing Mason and Scior, ASD in addition to the intellectual and sensory disabilities complicates both diagnosis and treatment. To prevent inaccurate diagnoses and treatments it is important to create a complete profile of mental health problems and behaviors related to experiencing and coping with stress and insecure attachment.

For the population of people with combined sensory and intellectual disabilities this has not been done yet. Because both the combinations of sensory and intellectual disabilities as well as ASD and intellectual disabilities increase the risk for mental health problems, it is likely that the combination of intellectual disability, sensory impairments and ASD puts people at an even higher risk of developing mental health problems, stress reactions, and insecure attachment styles.

Firstly, conditions that might cause behavioral problems: insecure attachment and stress reactions, are studied, next to the presence of some of the most common mental health problems that have been described for this population: mood disorders, anxiety, and manic and hyperactive behavior.

Secondly, this study will assess whether the presence of ASD symptoms in this population is related to a different profile of mental health problems, stress reactions and attachment styles in people with combined sensory and intellectual disabilities. Participants were recruited in four locations of three residential institutions and in three schools for people with sensory and intellectual disabilities within the Netherlands. We believe a representative sample was reached by recruiting in locations of all of the institutions and schools specialized in our target population within the Netherlands.

Inclusion criteria were 1 a moderate to profound intellectual disability, 2 a visual impairment according to the ICD version criteria World Health Organization [WHO], , 3 between 6 and 60 years of age.

Participants were selected by a contact person from each facility to maintain anonymity until consent for participation was given. Because of this procedure there was no information about response rate.

The sample consisted of 42 males and 18 females. There were 16 participants with additional auditory impairments. According to the definitions of Dammeyer and Ask Larsen and Damen they were deafblind. This instrument was designed specifically for this target population. Sensory impairments and intellectual disabilities were diagnosed prior to and independent of this study by licensed psychologists or physicians. The list of disturbed attachment behaviors Boris and Zeanah, is a screening instrument that gives an indication of how securely attached persons are to their caregivers.

The questionnaire consists of eight behavior descriptions on a 5-point Likert scale. A total score is calculated by adding scores on the eight individual questions. Higher scores are indicative of more disturbed attachment behaviors Stor and Storsbergen, The Dutch translation Hermans et al. The ADAMS consists of 28 multiple choice questions, in which the prevalence or severity of behaviors are rated on a scale from 0 not a problem to 3 severe problem.

Participants were recruited through their residential facility or school. Because of ethical and legal requirements parents or legal representatives were asked for informed consent.

After consent was given, a caregiver from the residential facility, who was most familiar to the participant, filled in the questionnaires. In order to assess whether the participants had scores within the clinical ranges, we compared scores of our participants to norms or cut-off scores of these questionnaires when available.

When cut-off scores or norms were not published, scores of participants were compared to mean scores of similar populations. For the list of disturbed attachment behaviors, scores ranging from 0 to 8 indicate no disturbed attachment, scores ranging from 8 to 24 indicate possible disturbed attachment, and scores of 24 and above indicate a probable disturbed attachment Stor and Storsbergen, Table 1 shows how many participants fell into each category.

These cut-off scores are meant for screening purposes Hermans et al. For people with moderate to profound intellectual disabilities, the Depressed Mood cut-off is a score of Two participants scored above the cut-off 3.

In addition, Esbensen et al. Table 2 shows how many participants from the current study scored above the 90th and 95th percentile rank. For the Stress Survey Schedule, mean scores were reported as a function of sex, verbal ability or age Goodwin et al.

Since the larger part of our group consisted of non-verbal participants or participants with very limited verbal skills, we compared our participants to the non-verbal group that was reported by Goodwin et al. Table 3 shows this comparison.

Table 3. All effect sizes were medium. Within the group of participants with many ASD symptoms, five participants were deafblind. The remaining 11 participants with deafblindness showed few ASD symptoms. Table 4. Differences between groups with few and many symptoms of ASD on attachment, anxiety, depression and mood, and stress.

With regard to IQ, age, and physical disabilities of the participants we found no correlation between age, visual and auditory impairments with OASID scores. There were slightly more participants with severe and profound intellectual disability with high OASID scores.

The current study investigated the presence of mental health problems, insecure attachment, and stress reactions in persons with a combination of sensory and intellectual disabilities. First, the attachment style, stress reactions and presence of anxiety, depression, and mood disorders were studied in the target population by comparing them to norm scores or cut-off scores. Secondly, the effect of the number of ASD symptoms on these mental health problems and behaviors was assessed by looking at the differences in scores between participants with few and many ASD symptoms.

On the list of disturbed attachment signals, only a very small proportion of the study sample did not show signs of a disturbed attachment. The stress-attachment model of challenging behaviors in people with intellectual disability of Janssen et al. A treatment based on this model was designed by Sterkenburg , who has shown that an attachment based treatment i.

In line with this intervention it is therefore recommended to screen for attachment related problems in persons from this population and that behavioral treatment is adjusted in the case that disturbed attachment is encountered. There is, however, still the possibility that the prevalence of attachment problems in the current study is slightly overestimated. The list of disturbed attachment signals is not specifically developed for this population and some signals may have been unfairly attributed to attachment problems when they are in fact part of their intellectual or sensory disability.

Nevertheless, it is important to remain vigilant for signs of an insecure attachment style within this population.

The results on the ADAMS revealed that only a few participants scored above the 90th percentile on any of the scales. For social avoidance high scores were found. Fifteen percent of the participants scored above the 90th percentile.

Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS)

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Esbensen and J. Rojahn and M. Aman and S. Esbensen , J.

A review of the literature revealed that there was no adequate assessment instrument available that screens comprehensively for anxiety and depression in persons with mental retardation. We developed a preliminary rating scale that included 55 symptom items. We examined the factor structure of these items by an exploratory factor analysis of behavior ratings on individuals. A five-factor solution emerged that was both statistically sound and clinically meaningful. Model fit was acceptable.

A review of the literature revealed that there was no adequate assessment instrument available that screens comprehensively for anxiety and depression in persons with mental retardation. We developed a preliminary rating scale that included 55 symptom items. We examined the factor structure of these items by an exploratory factor analysis of behavior ratings on individuals. A five-factor solution emerged that was both statistically sound and clinically meaningful. Model fit was acceptable. Internal consistency of the subscales and retest reliability for both the total scale and the subscales was high. Interrater reliability was satisfactory.


[36]. All participants have been screened with the Anxiety, Depression, And Mood Scale. (ADAMS).[24] The ADAMS is an informant-report instrument, specifically.


Stress, Affect Regulation and Attachment of People With Sensory and Intellectual Disabilities

Report update to this record. We aimed to assess depression, anxiety, and their determining factors in Bulgarian patients with RE and cognitive problems. Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability GAS-ID : Development and psychometric properties of a new measure for use with people with mild intellectual disability. Please note any files released to you as part of your request are subject to the terms and conditions of use for the Oxford University Research Archive unless explicitly stated otherwise by the author. Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability GAS-ID : development and psychometric properties of a new measure for use with people with mild intellectual disability.

Background: In persons with combined intellectual and sensory disabilities, mood disorders, stress reactions, and attachment problems are more prevalent. This study assessed the presence of these problems within this target population and the effects of an additional Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD. Methods: Participants were 60 persons with combined intellectual and sensory disabilities, all participants had visual impairments, 16 were deafblind.

Все остальные встретили слова Беккера недоуменным молчанием. - Элементы! - повторил Беккер.  - Периодическая таблица.

Хейл замолк, уставившись в свой компьютер. Она мечтала, чтобы он поскорее ушел. Сьюзан подумала, не позвонить ли ей Стратмору. Коммандер в два счета выставит Хейла - все-таки сегодня суббота. Но она отдавала себе отчет в том, что, если Хейла отправят домой, он сразу же заподозрит неладное, начнет обзванивать коллег-криптографов, спрашивать, что они об этом думают, В конце концов Сьюзан решила, что будет лучше, если Хейл останется.

Sulla Vespa. Venti mille pesete. Итальянец перевел взгляд на свой маленький потрепанный мотоцикл и засмеялся. - Venti mille pesete.

Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

 Халохот - тот, что слева, - пояснил Смит. - Он мертв? - спросил директор.

А потом раздался нечеловеческий крик. Это был протяжный вопль ужаса, издаваемый умирающим зверем. Сьюзан замерла возле вентиляционного люка. Крик оборвался столь же внезапно, как и раздался.

Но вместо признаков срыва Фонтейн обнаружил подготовительную работу над беспрецедентной разведывательной операцией, которую только можно было себе представить. Неудивительно, что Стратмор просиживает штаны на работе. Если он сумеет реализовать свой замысел, это стократно компенсирует провал Попрыгунчика. Фонтейн пришел к выводу, что Стратмор в полном порядке, что он трудится на сто десять процентов, все так же хитер, умен и в высшей степени лоялен, впрочем - как .

 Я что, бухгалтер. - Нет, милый, ты директорский автопилот. Надеюсь, не забыл. - Ну и что мне, прожевать все эти цифры. Она поправила прическу.

Она должна немедленно поговорить со Стратмором. Сьюзан осторожно приоткрыла дверь и посмотрела на глянцевую, почти зеркальную стену шифровалки. Узнать, следит ли за ней Хейл, было невозможно.

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2 Comments

  1. Danny M.

    Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS). Esbensen AJ; Rojahn J; Aman MG; Ruedrich S. ProQolid. Basic description. Contact and conditions of use.

    12.04.2021 at 10:03 Reply
  2. Mabonare

    KEY WORDS: Mental retardation; depression; anxiety; mood disorders; assessment; psychopathology. INTRODUCTION. Individuals with dual.

    18.04.2021 at 23:59 Reply

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