File Name: emile durkheim his life and work .zip
Stipulating that an adequate integrated paradigm for sociology must embrace two basic social dimensions, macro- to micro-social and the objective— subjective aspects of social life, we ask whether Durkheim's work meets these requirements. We find that although his work can contribute to this end with its recognition of multiple levels of reality, the relations among these levels and their change through history, and with its marked contributions at the macro-subjective level it is nonetheless an inadequate exemplar for an integrated paradigm.
- Emile Durkheim: His Life and Work: A Historical and Critical Study
- Émile Durkheim
- The Rules of Sociological Method
- Émile Durkheim (1858—1917)
This study of Durkheim seeks to help the reader to achieve a historical understanding of his ideas and to form critical judgments about their value.
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Emile Durkheim: His Life and Work: A Historical and Critical Study
He is widely regarded as the founder of the French school of sociology. In he moved to the Sorbonne , where he was appointed professor of education in and professor of education and sociology in Durkheim was born into a Jewish family of very modest means, and it was taken for granted that he would become a rabbi , like his father. The death of his father before Durkheim was 20, however, burdened him with heavy responsibilities. As early as his late teens Durkheim became convinced that effort and even sorrow are more conducive to the spiritual progress of the individual than pleasure or joy.
He became a gravely disciplined young man. Durkheim was respected by his peers and teachers, but he was impatient with the excessive stress on elegant rhetoric and surface polish then prevalent in French higher education. His teachers of philosophy struck him as too fond of generalities and too worshipful of the past. Fretting at the conventionality of formal examinations, Durkheim passed the last competitive examination in but without the brilliance that his friends had predicted for him.
He then accepted a series of provincial assignments as a teacher of philosophy at the state secondary schools of Sens, Saint-Quentin, and Troyes between and In he was appointed lecturer at the University of Bordeaux, where he subsequently became a professor and taught social philosophy until He then moved to the University of Paris , where he wrote some of his most important works and influenced a generation of scholars.
It has been noted, however, at times with disapproval and amazement by non-French social scientists, that Durkheim traveled little and that, like many French scholars and the notable British anthropologist Sir James Frazer , he never undertook any fieldwork. The vast information Durkheim studied on the tribes of Australia and New Guinea and on the Eskimos was all collected by other anthropologists, travelers, or missionaries.
This was not due to provincialism or lack of attention to the concrete. Durkheim did not resemble the French philosopher Auguste Comte in making venturesome and dogmatic generalizations while disregarding empirical observation. He did, however, maintain that concrete observation in remote parts of the world does not always lead to illuminating views on the past or even on the present.
For him, facts had no intellectual meaning unless they were grouped into types and laws. He claimed repeatedly that it is from a construction erected on the inner nature of the real that knowledge of concrete reality is obtained, a knowledge not perceived by observation of the facts from the outside.
He thus constructed concepts such as the sacred and totemism exactly in the same way that Karl Marx developed the concept of class. The outward events of his life as an intellectual and as a scholar may appear undramatic. The Second Empire , which collapsed in the defeat of the French at the hands of Germany, had signified an era of levity and dissipation to the young scholar. France , with the support of many of its liberal and intellectual elements, had plunged headlong into a war for which it was unprepared; its leaders proved incapable.
The bloody repression that followed the Commune was taken as further evidence of the ruthlessness of capitalism and of the selfishness of the frightened bourgeoisie. Later, the crisis of over Georges Boulanger , the minister of war who demanded a centralist government to execute a policy of revenge against Germany, was one of several events that testified to the resurgence of nationalism , soon to be accompanied by anti-Semitism.
Such major French thinkers of the older generation as Ernest Renan and Hippolyte Taine interrupted their historical and philosophical works after to analyze those evils and to offer remedies.
He perceived around him the prevalence of anomie, a personal sense of rootlessness fostered by the absence of social norms. Material prosperity set free greed and passions that threatened the equilibrium of society. He believed that societies with undifferentiated labour i. The division of labour rendered workers more alien to one another and yet more dependent upon one another; specialization meant that no individual labourer would build a product on his or her own.
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He formally established the academic discipline of sociology and—with Max Weber —is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science. From his lifetime, much of Durkheim's work would be concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity , an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. Durkheim would also be deeply preoccupied with the acceptance of sociology as a legitimate science. He refined the positivism originally set forth by Auguste Comte , promoting what could be considered as a form of epistemological realism , as well as the use of the hypothetico-deductive model in social science. For Durkheim, sociology was the science of institutions , understanding the term in its broader meaning as the "beliefs and modes of behaviour instituted by the collectivity,"  with its aim being to discover structural social facts. As such, Durkheim was a major proponent of structural functionalism , a foundational perspective in both sociology and anthropology.
January , Sociology of Emile Durkheim. Adams and Sydie begin their discussion of early sociology with a presentation of the sociological work of conservative writers pp. After the French Revolution and the Enlightenment, some writers were concerned with how social order could be maintained in the face of progress, revolution, disorder, and rule by the people. Early sociology is often considered to have emerged out of this conservative reaction to the Enlightenment and the French Revolution — writers such as Saint-Simon, Comte, and Spencer looked on the emergent capitalist society as generally good and progressive, but were concerned about how society holds together given the individualism that emerged and the changes in political order.
The Rules of Sociological Method
Along with Karl Marx and Max Weber, he is credited as being one of the principal founders of modern sociology. Chief among his claims is that society is a sui generis reality, or a reality unique to itself and irreducible to its composing parts. It is created when individual consciences interact and fuse together to create a synthetic reality that is completely new and greater than the sum of its parts. This reality can only be understood in sociological terms, and cannot be reduced to biological or psychological explanations. Using this method, he published influential works on a number of topics.
Émile Durkheim (1858—1917)
This study of Durkheim seeks to help the reader to achieve a historical understanding of his ideas and to form critical judgments about their value. To some extent these tow aims are contradictory. On the one hand, one seeks to understand: what did Durkheim really mean, how did he see the world, how did his ideas related to one another and how did they develop, how did they related to their biographical and historical context, how were they received, what influence did they have and to what criticism were they subjected, what was it like not to make certain distinctions, not to see certain errors, of fact or of logic, not to know what has subsequently become known? On the other hand, one seeks to assess: how valuable and how valid are the ideas, to what fruitful insights and explanations do they lead, how do they stand up to analysis and to the evidence, what is their present value? Yet it seems that it is only by inducing oneself not to see and only by seeing them that one can make a critical assessment. The only solution is to pursue both aims—seeing and not seeing—simultaneously.
He is widely regarded as the founder of the French school of sociology. In he moved to the Sorbonne , where he was appointed professor of education in and professor of education and sociology in Durkheim was born into a Jewish family of very modest means, and it was taken for granted that he would become a rabbi , like his father. The death of his father before Durkheim was 20, however, burdened him with heavy responsibilities. As early as his late teens Durkheim became convinced that effort and even sorrow are more conducive to the spiritual progress of the individual than pleasure or joy. He became a gravely disciplined young man. Durkheim was respected by his peers and teachers, but he was impatient with the excessive stress on elegant rhetoric and surface polish then prevalent in French higher education.
Джабба поднял брови. - Хорошо, это ничего не дает. Начнем вычитание. Я беру на себя верхнюю четверть пунктов, вы, Сьюзан, среднюю. Остальные - все, что внизу. Мы ищем различие, выражаемое простым числом. Через несколько секунд всем стало ясно, что эта затея бессмысленна.
Целясь в торс, он сводил к минимуму возможность промаха в вертикальной и горизонтальной плоскостях. Эта тактика себя оправдала. Хотя в последнее мгновение Беккер увернулся, Халохот сумел все же его зацепить. Он понимал, что пуля лишь слегка оцарапала жертву, не причинив существенного ущерба, тем не менее она сделала свое. Контакт был установлен.
Вы только посмотрите на эту палату. Мою колонку перепечатывают издания по всему миру. - Сэр! - Беккер поднял обе руки, точно признавая свое поражение.
Он рассчитал все. Рука консьержа только что покинула ячейку под номером 301. Беккер поблагодарил его и быстро зашагал, ища глазами лифт.
Согласился подежурить в этот уик-энд. Глаза Стратмора сузились. - Странно. Я вчера говорил с. Велел ему сегодня не приходить.