atlas head and neck anatomy pdf

Atlas Head And Neck Anatomy Pdf

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Paul D. Since the first edition in , this book has set the standard in illustration of head and neck anatomy for students and clinicians at all levels and stages of their careers in any discipline with involvement above the clavicles.

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Northwestern University Medical School Chicago. This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. This is the second anatomic atlas to come out of the Department of Anatomy of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Like the first Color Atlas of Human Anatomy , by McMinn and Hutchings, it successfully combines the talents of a knowledgeable and experienced teacher of human anatomy with those of a master photographer, and the craftsmanship of a superb prosector.

Head and neck anatomy

This article describes the anatomy of the head and neck of the human body, including the brain, bones, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, glands, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, and throat. The head rests on the top part of the vertebral column , with the skull joining at C1 the first cervical vertebra known as the atlas. The skeletal section of the head and neck forms the top part of the axial skeleton and is made up of the skull , hyoid bone, auditory ossicles , and cervical spine.

The occipital bone joins with the atlas near the foramen magnum , a large hole foramen at the base of the skull. The atlas joins with the occipital condyle above and the axis below. The spinal cord passes through the foramen magnum. The head and neck is covered in skin and its appendages, termed the integumentary system. These include hair , sweat glands , sebaceous glands , and sensory nerves.

The skin is made up of three microscopic layers: epidermis , dermis , and hypodermis. The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium and is divided into the following five sublayers or strata, listed in order from outer to inner:. The mouth , also called the oral cavity , is the entranceway into the digestive system containing both primary and accessory organs of digestion. Two rows of teeth are supported by facial bones of the skull, the maxilla above and the mandible below.

Adults have 32 permanent teeth, and children have 20 deciduous teeth. There are various tooth shapes for different jobs. For example, when chewing, the upper teeth work together with the lower teeth of the same shape to bite, chew, and tear food. The names of these teeth are:. The white visible part of a tooth is called the crown. The rounded upper projections of the back teeth are cusps.

The hard white exterior covering of the tooth is the enamel. As the tooth tapers below the gumline, the neck is formed. Below the neck, holding the tooth into the bone, is the root of the tooth. The inner portions of the tooth consist of the dentin, a bonelike tissue, and the pulp. The pulp is a soft tissue area containing the nerve and blood vessels to nourish and protect the tooth, located within the pulp cavity. A tooth sits in a specialized socket called the alveolus.

The tooth is held in location by a periodontal ligament , with the assistance of cementum. Teeth are surrounded by gingiva , or gums, part of the periodontium , support tissue of oral cavity protection. The periodontium includes all of the support membranes of the dental structures surround and support the teeth such as the gums and the attachment surfaces and membranes.

These include epithelial tissues epithelium , connective tissues, ligaments and bone , muscle tissue and nervous tissue. There are three sets of salivary glands : the parotid, the submandibular and the sublingual glands.

The exocrine glands secrete saliva for proper mixing of food and provides enzymes to start chemical digestion. Saliva helps to hold together the formed bolus which is swallowed after chewing. Saliva is composed primarily of water, ions, salivary amylase , lysozymes , and trace amounts of urea. The tongue is a specialized skeletal muscle that is specially adapted for the activities of speech, chewing, developing gustatory sense taste and swallowing.

The tongue contains two sets of muscles, the intrinsic- involved with shape of tongue, and the extrinsic- involved with tongue movement.

It is attached to the hyoid bone. Terms meaning tongue include "glosso" from Greek and "lingual" from Latin. The outer surfaces of the head and neck are lined by epithelium. The protective tissues of the oral cavity are continuous with the digestive tract are called mucosa or mucous membranes.

The cells of the inner oral cavity are called the buccal mucosa. The oral cavity is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium containing about three layers of cells. The lips are also protected by specialized sensory cells called Meissner's corpuscles.

Blood circulates from the upper systemic loop originating at the aortic arch , and includes: the brachiocephalic artery , left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. The head and neck are emptied of blood by the subclavian vein and jugular vein. The brachiocephalic artery or trunk is the first and largest artery that branches to form the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery.

This artery provides blood to the right upper chest, right arm, neck, and head, through a branch called right vertebral artery. The right and left vertebral artery feed into the basilar artery and upward to the Posterior cerebral artery , which provides most of the brain with oxygenated blood. The posterior cerebral artery and the posterior communicating artery are within the circle of Willis. The ICA supplies the brain. The ECA supplies the neck and face. The left subclavian artery and the right subclavian artery , one on each side of the body form the internal thoracic artery , the vertebral artery, the thyrocervical trunk , and the costocervical trunk.

The subclavian becomes the axillary artery at the lateral border of the first rib. The left subclavian artery also provides blood to the left upper chest and left arm. The Blood—brain barrier BBB is semi-permeable membrane that controls the capillary leak potential of the circulatory system. In most parts of the body, the smallest blood vessels, called capillaries , are lined with endothelial cells, which have small spaces between each individual cell so substances can move readily between the inside and the outside of the capillary.

This is not in the case of brain. In the brain, the endothelial cells fit tightly together to create a tight junction and substances cannot pass out of the bloodstream. Specialized glial cells called astrocytes form a tight junction or protective barrier around brain blood vessels and may be important in the development of the BBB.

Astrocytes may also be responsible for transporting ions electrolytes from the brain to the blood. Blood from the brain and neck flows from: 1 within the cranium via the internal jugular veins , a continuation of the sigmoid sinuses. The right and left external jugular veins drain from the parotid glands , facial muscles, scalp into the subclavian veins. The right and left vertebral veins drain the vertebrae and muscles into the right subclavian vein and into the superior vena cava , into the right atrium of the heart.

The lymphatic system drains the head and neck of excess interstitial fluid via lymph vessels or capillaries , equally into the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct. Lymph nodes line the cervical spine and neck regions as well as along the face and jaw.

The tonsils also are lymphatic tissue and help mediate the ingestion of pathogens. Tonsils in humans include, from superior to inferior: nasopharyngeal tonsils also known as adenoids , palatine tonsils , and lingual tonsils. Together this set of lymphatic tissue is called the tonsillar ring or Waldeyer's ring. The spinal nerves arise from the spinal column. The top section of the spine is the cervical section, which contains nerves that innervate muscles of the head, neck and thoracic cavity , as well as transmit sensory information to the CNS.

The cervical spine section contains seven vertebrae, C-1 through C-7, and eight nerve pairs, C-1 through C There is the formation of an extensive network of nerve groups or tracts attaching to the spinal cord in arrangements called rami or plexus.

The sensory branches of spinal nerves include: lesser occipital , C-2, great auricular , C-2 and C-3 ; transverse cervical , C-2 and C-3; and supraclavicular , C-3 and C These nerve groups transmit afferent sensory information from the scalp, neck, and shoulders to the brain.

The motor branches of spinal nerves include: ansa cervicalis , dividing into a superior root, C-1, and an inferior root, C-2 and C-3, and the phrenic nerve , C-3 to C-5, the segmental nerve branches, C-1 to C These nerve groups transmit efferent nerve motor information from the brain to muscle groups of the scalp, neck, diaphragm anatomy , and shoulders.

Additionally there are: C5-C8, and T1 Brachial plexus , providing the entire nerve supply of the shoulder and upper limb; and includes supraclavicular branches dorsal scapular , suprascapular , long thoracic lateral cord musculocutaneous , lateral antibrachial cutaneous , lateral head of median nerve , medial cord ulnar, medial head of median nerve, medial antibrachial cutaneous , medial brachial cutaneous , posterior cord axillary, radial , controlling the arm.

Damage to a person's spinal cord above C-5 may result in respiratory arrest and death if medicinal aid does not intervene. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves emerge from the brain; these affect movements and sensation, and some special organs such as hearing of parts of the head and neck. Movements of the neck includes: flexion , extension , nodding yes , and rotation shaking head no. The mouth has evolved to support chewing, mastication and swallowing deglutition , and speech phonation.

In addition to the teeth, other structures that aid chewing are the lips, cheeks , tongue , hard palate , soft palate , and floor of the mouth. Several glands of the endocrine system are found within the head and neck. Endocrine means that the secretion is used within the body. Endocrine glands are termed as ductless and release their secretions directly into the blood.

The endocrine system is under the direct supervision of the nervous system, using the negative feedback principal of homeostasis , to create hormones which act as chemical instant messengers. The hypothalamus connects directly to the pituitary gland , both through the circulatory system and by direct connection of neurons. Also, within the cranium , the pineal gland , which attaches to the thalamus , controls the body's hour rhythms circadian rhythm through the release of melatonin.

The pituitary gland secretes hormones that directly impact the body as well as hormones that indirectly control body functions because they activate other endocrine glands, such as the adrenal cortex ACTH and the thyroid gland TSH. These two glands when stimulated by pituitary hormones then release their own hormones. The pituitary gland has two lobes, the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe.

There is an intermediate lobe, in adult humans it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary, nearly indistinguishable from the anterior lobe. The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSH.

In the neck are the thyroid and parathyroid glands , that secrete hormones that control metabolism and blood calcium levels. The four parathyroid glands are situated upon the back surface of the thyroid gland. The respiratory system begins in the head and neck, with air entering and leaving the body through the mouth and nose. The respiratory system involving the head and neck includes:.

These lead down into the lower respiratory tract. A critical junction between the respiratory and digestive systems is the epiglottis , a cartilage flap which shuts during swallowing to prevent aspiration. The epiglottis is normally open to support respiration and shuts during swallowing to prevent food and fluids from entering the trachea, activating the gag reflex or initiates the choking mechanism.

The nervous system is composed of a central nervous system CNS , brain and spinal cord , and the peripheral nervous system PNS , cranial nerves and spinal nerves.

Head and neck anatomy

This article describes the anatomy of the head and neck of the human body, including the brain, bones, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, glands, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, and throat. The head rests on the top part of the vertebral column , with the skull joining at C1 the first cervical vertebra known as the atlas. The skeletal section of the head and neck forms the top part of the axial skeleton and is made up of the skull , hyoid bone, auditory ossicles , and cervical spine. The occipital bone joins with the atlas near the foramen magnum , a large hole foramen at the base of the skull. The atlas joins with the occipital condyle above and the axis below. The spinal cord passes through the foramen magnum. The head and neck is covered in skin and its appendages, termed the integumentary system.

Faster previews. Personalized experience. Get started with a FREE account. Sobotta Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. Load more similar PDF files. PDF Drive investigated dozens of problems and listed the biggest global issues facing the world today.

As the authors mention in their preface, this book does really combine the very best of a clinically oriented text and an atlas. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: Head, Neck, and Neuroanatomy, Third Edition by renowned educators Michael Schuenke, Erik Schulte, and Udo Schumacher, along with consulting editor Cristian Stefan, expands on prior editions with hundreds of new images and significant updates to the neuroanatomy content. Head and neck sections encompass the bones, ligaments, joints, muscles, lymphatic system, organs, related neurovascular structures, and topographical and sectional anatomy. The neuroanatomy section covers the histology of nerve and glial cells and autonomic nervous system, then delineates different areas of the brain and spinal cord, followed by sectional anatomy and functional systems. The final section features a glossary and expanded CNS synopses, featuring six new topics, from neurovascular structures of the nose to the pharynx. It will also benefit dental and physical therapy students, as well as physicians and physical therapists seeking an image-rich clinical resource to consult in practice.

Anatomy and Neurobiology

Reviewed in the United Kingdom on September 18, This shopping feature will continue to load items when the Enter key is pressed. I do wish there were different photos in it at times and there are some things missing but compared to what is available on the subject, this is in my top four on my shelf. Something we hope you'll especially enjoy: If you're a seller, Fulfillment by Amazon can help you grow your business. However, the resolution of the text in the diagrams is not great on Kindle and it doesn't enlarge much before starts to pixelate. Each chapter is logically laid out and provides clear detail of all aspects of head and neck anatomy

McMinn's Color Atlas of Head and Neck Anatomy

Head, Neck, and Neuroanatomy THIEME Atlas of Anatomy 3rd Edition PDF

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Джабба повернул голову к экрану ВР. Атакующие линии рвались вперед, они находились уже на волосок от пятой, и последней, стены, Последние минуты существования банка данных истекали. Сьюзан отгородилась от царившего вокруг хаоса, снова и снова перечитывая послание Танкадо. PRIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELEMENTS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI ГЛАВНАЯ РАЗНИЦА МЕЖДУ ЭЛЕМЕНТАМИ, ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫМИ ЗА ХИРОСИМУ И НАГАСАКИ - Это даже не вопрос! - крикнул Бринкерхофф.  - Какой же может быть ответ.

McMinn`s Color Atlas of Head Neck Anatomy 3rd Edition (www.irananatomy.ir).pdf

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Есть вести от Дэвида. Стратмор покачал головой. - Я попросил его не звонить мне, пока он не найдет кольцо. - Почему? - удивилась Сьюзан.  - А если ему нужна помощь.

 - Никакой усложненной структуры, один лишь инстинкт: жри, опорожняйся и ползи. Вот что это. Простота. Губительная простота. Он делает то, на что запрограммирован, а потом исчезает. Фонтейн сурово смотрел на Джаббу: - И на что же запрограммирован этот червяк. - Понятия не имею, - сказал Джабба.

Черный лед. В центре помещения из пола торчала, подобно носу исполинской торпеды, верхняя часть машины, ради которой было возведено все здание. Ее черный лоснящийся верх поднимался на двадцать три фута, а сама она уходила далеко вниз, под пол.

 - Он все еще посмеивался.  - Дэвид Беккер хороший малый. Не упусти .

Я вчера говорил с. Велел ему сегодня не приходить. Он ничего не сказал о том, что поменялся с тобой дежурством. У Чатрукьяна ком застрял в горле. Он молчал.

Сомнения, которые его одолевали, исчезли, как только он встретился с коммандером Стратмором. У них состоялся откровенный разговор о его происхождении, о потенциальной враждебности, какую он мог испытывать к Соединенным Штатам, о его планах на будущее. Танкадо прошел проверку на полиграф-машине и пережил пять недель интенсивного психологического тестирования. И с успехом его выдержал.

Халохот стиснул револьвер в руке, не вынимая из кармана. Он будет стрелять с бедра, направляя дуло вверх, в спину Беккера. Пуля пробьет либо позвоночник, либо легкие, а затем сердце. Если даже он не попадет в сердце, Беккер будет убит: разрыв легкого смертелен. Его, пожалуй, могли бы спасти в стране с высокоразвитой медициной, но в Испании у него нет никаких шансов.

Он посмотрел на ее пальцы, но не увидел никакого кольца и перевел взгляд на сумку. Вот где кольцо! - подумал.  - В сумке. - и улыбнулся, едва сохраняя спокойствие. - Ты сочтешь это сумасшествием, - сказал Беккер, - но мне кажется, что у тебя есть кое-что, что мне очень .

 - Хочу его запатентовать. - Как торговую марку? - Беккер смотрел на него изумленно. Парень был озадачен. - Для имени нужна торговая марка, а не патент. - А мне без разницы.

 Что же случилось утром. - Я все рассказал лейтенанту. - Я с ним говорил, но… - Надеюсь, вы отчитали его как следует! - воскликнул Клушар. Беккер кивнул: - Самым решительным образом.

Бринкерхофф читал, не веря своим глазам. - Какого чер… В распечатке был список последних тридцати шести файлов, введенных в ТРАНСТЕКСТ. За названием каждого файла следовали четыре цифры - код команды добро, данной программой Сквозь строй. Последний файл в списке таким кодом не сопровождался, вместо этого следовала запись: ФИЛЬТР ОТКЛЮЧЕН ВРУЧНУЮ. Господи Иисусе! - подумал Бринкерхофф.

Все вокруг светилось ярко-красными огнями. Шифровалка умирала. То же самое будет и со мной, - подумала .

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