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- Effectively design shell-and-tube heat exchangers
- Effectively Design Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers (PDF)
- Heat exchanger
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Palen Heat Transfer Research, Inc. College Station, Texas Design The many types of cookers and dryers used in meat rendering and fish meal plants produce large quantities of hot gases and vapors that can be hard to deal with or dispose of responsibly. This software can design, horizontal shell side condensers, horizontal tube side condensers, vertical shell side condensers, vertical tube side condensers and reflux condensers.
Effectively design shell-and-tube heat exchangers
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers are one of the most popular types of exchanger due to the flexibility the designer has to allow for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. There are two main categories of Shell and Tube exchanger :. Regardless of the type of industry the exchanger is to be used in there are a number of common features see Condensers. A shell and tube exchanger consists of a number of tubes mounted inside a cylindrical shell.
Two fluids can exchange heat, one fluid flows over the outside of the tubes while the second fluid flows through the tubes. Front Header—this is where the fluid enters the tubeside of the exchanger. It is sometimes referred to as the Stationary Header. Rear Header—this is where the tubeside fluid leaves the exchanger or where it is returned to the front header in exchangers with multiple tubeside passes. Tube bundle—this comprises of the tubes, tube sheets , baffles and tie rods etc.
The popularity of shell and tube exchangers has resulted in a standard nomenclature being developed for their designation and use by the Tubular Exchanger Manufactures Association TEMA. This nomenclature is defined in terms letters and diagrams.
The first letter describes the front header type, the second letter the shell type and the third letter the rear header type. TEMA nomenclature. Many combinations of front header, shell and rear header can be made.
In a fixed tubesheet exchanger , the tubesheet is welded to the shell. This results in a simple and economical construction and the tube bores can be cleaned mechanically or chemically. However, the outside surfaces of the tubes are inaccessible except to chemical cleaning. If large temperature differences exist between the shell and tube materials, it may be necessary to incorporate an expansion bellows in the shell, to eliminate excessive stresses caused by expansion.
Such bellows are often a source of weakness and failure in operation. In circumstances where the consequences of failure are particularly grave U-Tube or Floating Header units are normally used.
This is the cheapest of all removable bundle designs, but is generally slightly more expensive than a fixed tubesheet design at low pressures. In a U-Tube exchanger any of the front header types may be used and the rear header is normally a M-Type. The U-tubes permit unlimited thermal expansion, the tube bundle can be removed for cleaning and small bundle to shell clearances can be achieved.
However, since internal cleaning of the tubes by mechanical means is difficult, it is normal only to use this type where the tube side fluids are clean.
In this type of exchanger the tubesheet at the Rear Header end is not welded to the shell but allowed to move or float.
The tubesheet at the Front Header tube side fluid inlet end is of a larger diameter than the shell and is sealed in a similar manner to that used in the fixed tubesheet design. The tubesheet at the rear header end of the shell is of slightly smaller diameter than the shell, allowing the bundle to be pulled through the shell. The use of a floating head means that thermal expansion can be allowed for and the tube bundle can be removed for cleaning.
There are several rear header types that can be used but the S-Type Rear Head is the most popular. This type of header is easy to repair and replace. It also gives access to the tubes for cleaning or repair without having to disturb the pipe work. It does however have two seals one between the tube sheet and header and the other between the header and the end plate. This increases the risk of leakage and the cost of the header over a B-Type Front Header. This is the cheapest type of front header.
It also is more suitable than the A-Type Front Header for high pressure duties because the header has only one seal. A disadvantage is that to gain access to the tubes requires disturbance to the pipe work in order to remove the header. It does allow access to the tube without disturbing the pipe work but is difficult to repair and replace because the tube bundle is an integral part of the header.
This is the most expensive type of front header. It does allow access to the tubes without disturbing the pipe work but is difficult to repair and replace because the tube bundle is an integral part of the header. The advantage of this type of header is that the tubes can be accessed without disturbing the pipe work and it is cheaper than an A-Type Front Header. However, they are difficult to maintain and replace as the header and tube sheet are an integral part of the shell.
Strictly speaking this is not a TEMA designated type but is generally recognized. It can be used as a front or rear header and is used when the exchanger is to be used in a pipe line. It is cheaper than other types of headers as it reduces piping costs. It is mainly used with single tube pass units although with suitable partitioning any odd number of passes can be allowed. This is most commonly used shell type, suitable for most duties and applications.
Other shell types only tend to be used for special duties or applications. This is generally used when pure countercurrent flow is required in a two tube side pass unit.
This is achieved by having two shells side passes—the two passes being separated by a longitudinal baffle. The main problem with this type of unit is thermal and hydraulic leakage across this longitudinal baffle unless special precautions are taken. This is used for horizontal thermosyphon reboilers and applications where the shellside pressure drop needs to be kept small.
This is achieved by splitting the shellside flow. This is used for similar applications to G-Type Shell but tends to be used when larger units are required. This tends to be used when the maximum allowable pressure drop is exceeded in an E-Type Shell even when double segmental baffles are used. It is also used when tube vibration is a problem.
The divided flow on the shellside reduces the flow velocities over the tubes and hence reduces the pressure drop and the likelihood of tube vibration. When there are two inlet nozzles and one outlet nozzle this is sometimes referred to as an I-Type Shell. This is used only for reboilers to provide a large disengagement space in order to minimize shellside liquid carry over. Alternatively a K-Type Shell may be used as a chiller. In this case the main process is to cool the tube side fluid by boiling a fluid on the shellside.
This is used if the maximum shellside pressure drop is exceeded by all other shell and baffle type combinations. The main applications are shellside condensers and gas coolers. This type of header is for use with fixed tubesheets only, since the tubesheet is welded to the shell and access to the outside of the tubes is not possible. The main advantages of this type of header are that access can be gained to the inside of the tubes without having to remove any pipework and the bundle to shell clearances are small.
The main disadvantage is that a bellows or an expansion roll are required to allow for large thermal expansions and this limits the permitted operating temperature and pressure. This type of header is similar to the L-Type Rear Header but it is slightly cheaper. However, the header has to be removed to gain access to the inside of the tubes. Again, special measures have to be taken to cope with large thermal expansions and this limits the permitted operating temperature and pressure.
The advantage of this type of header is that the tubes can be accessed without disturbing the pipe work. However, they are difficult to maintain and replace since the header and tube sheet are an integral part of the shell.
This is an outside packed floating rear header. It is, in theory, a low cost floating head design which allows access to the inside of the tubes for cleaning and also allows the bundle to be removed for cleaning. The main problems with this type of header are:. In practice it is not a low cost design, because the shell has to be rolled to small tolerances for the packing to be effective. This is a floating rear header with backing device. It is the most expensive of the floating head types but does allow the bundle to be removed and unlimited thermal expansion is possible.
It also has smaller shell to bundle clearances than the other floating head types. However, it is difficult to dismantle for bundle pulling and the shell diameter and bundle to shell clearances are larger than for fixed head type exchangers.
This is a pull through floating head. It is cheaper and easier to remove the bundle than with the S-Type Rear Header, but still allows for unlimited thermal expansion. It does, however, have the largest bundle to shell clearance of all the floating head types and is more expensive than fixed header and U-tube types.
However, it permits unlimited thermal expansion, allows the bundle to be removed to clean the outside of the tubes, has the tightest bundle to shell clearances and is the simplest design. A disadvantage of the U-tube design is that it cannot normally have pure counterflow unless an F-Type Shell is used. Also, U-tube designs are limited to even numbers of tube passes. This is a packed floating tubesheet with lantern ring.
It is the cheapest of the floating head designs, allows for unlimited thermal expansion and allows the tube bundle to be removed for cleaning. The main problems with this type of head are:. Tubes may range in diameter from The tubes are laid out in triangular or square patterns in the tube sheets. The square layouts are required where it is necessary to get at the tube surface for mechanical cleaning.
The triangular arrangement allows more tubes in a given space. The tube pitch is the shortest center-to-center distance between tubes.
Since a square layout is used for cleaning purposes, a minimum gap of 6. Baffles are installed on the shell side to give a higher heat-transfer rate due to increased turbulence and to support the tubes thus reducing the chance of damage due to vibration. There are a number of different baffle types, which support the tubes and promote flow across the tubes. Double Segmental this is used to obtain a lower shellside velocity and pressure drop ,. The center-to-center distance between baffles is called the baffle-pitch and this can be adjusted to vary the crossflow velocity.
In practice the baffle pitch is not normally greater than a distance equal to the inside diameter of the shell or closer than a distance equal to one-fifth the diameter or In order to allow the fluid to flow backwards and forwards across the tubes part of the baffle is cut away.
Effectively Design Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers (PDF)
The optimum thermal design of a shell and tube heat exchanger involves the consideration of many interacting design parameters which can be summarized as.
A heat exchanger is a system used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. Heat exchangers are used in both cooling and heating processes. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat sink , which is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant. There are three primary classifications of heat exchangers according to their flow arrangement.
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers are one of the most popular types of exchanger due to the flexibility the designer has to allow for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. There are two main categories of Shell and Tube exchanger :. Regardless of the type of industry the exchanger is to be used in there are a number of common features see Condensers. A shell and tube exchanger consists of a number of tubes mounted inside a cylindrical shell. Two fluids can exchange heat, one fluid flows over the outside of the tubes while the second fluid flows through the tubes.
Troubleshooting shell-and-tube heat exchangers
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