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- The difference between Paradigm and Theory
- 6.2 Paradigms, theories, and how they shape a researcher’s approach
- CONCEPT, THEORY, HYPOTHESIS, AND PARADIGM - Differences Explained
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The difference between Paradigm and Theory
All rights reserved. We will examine the relationship between what we see and what is real as we learn about the interaction of observation and perception and the role played by experience and expectation. Some interesting visual illusions will demonstrate the concept of a paradigm and its affect on our perceptions.
We will consider how paradigms comprise the world-views of individuals as well as cultures and compare the concept of a paradigm with the related concepts of metaphor and model.
And hopefully we will see how it all relates to science, which is after all, our way of understanding how the universe works. Introduction 2. Paradigms 3. Time Flies 4. Paradigm 5. Food For Thought 6. Examples of Paradigms 7.
Is Heliocentrism a Paradigm 8. Rose Glasses 9. A Human Trait Experience and Perception Challenge Du Jour Paradigms, Models and Metaphors Significant contradictions Paradigms Within Paradigms Within Paradigms. Here are the objectives for today's lesson.
These objectives are also in the study guide at the beginning of the lesson. Before you begin to study the lesson, take a few minutes to read the objectives and the study questions for this lesson. Look for key words and ideas as you read. Use the study guide and follow it as you watch the program. Some students find it helpful to make a note in the margin which pertains to an objective or a study question.
Be sure to read these objectives in the study guide and refer to them as you study the lesson. Focusing on the learning objectives will help you to study and understand the important concepts. Compare the objectives with the study questions for the lesson to be sure that you have the concepts under control. Understand the role of experience and expectation in classifying information.
Understand how paradigms make it possible for us to learn and store new information. Consider the distinction between paradigms and the world view of an individual and a culture.
Perceive science as influenced by paradigms like all other aspects of our uniquely human mind. Why do we see shapes in clouds?
Are there really elephants and cauliflower and ice cream castles in the air? How do we know what we see when we see it, and what is real and what is not. What is real? For that matter, what is reality? How do we know when something is real. What sensory information allows us to determine whether or not our perceptions are correct? We can not under any circumstances, ever, be aware of everything that our senses are receiving information about.
Try and focus for a minute on the sensory input in the room where you are now. Listen to all of the sounds, the hums, rustling and extraneous noises. Look around the room at all of the detail, the colors, the textures, the shapes. And what about smells, and itches, aches and pains.
Don't forget the different tastes in your mouth. You may become aware of a great number of things, but you will have to ignore some of them. There is simply too much sensory information bombarding our senses for us to be aware of it. In order to make sense out of the world, we have to simplify it to a level that our brains can deal with it. Our survival as individuals and as a species depends on our perception.
We are not particularly strong, or fast, as animals go. Our evolutionary advantage is our brain. Being able to perceive danger and plan for the future are both well developed abilities in man. Sensory information which warns of danger must be immediately recognized to maximize the chance of escaping injury or death.
Our brains decode which information is important and which can be ignored without our help, although we can also influence that subconscious process to some degree. However it is done, the brain must make a processing decision as to which information is acted upon, which is stored without review, and which is ignored entirely.
Those decision are done in ways we do not understand and influenced by other factors in ways we also do not understand. In understanding our world, we learn about it, but we also learn from it. A paradigm is a way of organizing and condensing sensory information. Like learning in general, paradigms help in the study of physical science by helping us to organize information and understand our world.
Our paradigms also affect the way we design, record, and interpret our experiments and observations, as scientists and as humans. As the old saying goes, "You can get just as drunk on water as you can on land. Time flies like an arrow. Groucho Marx. What's funny about this, or rather, why does it not register right at first?
Take a few seconds to think about it and formulate an answer in your mind. The word "like" is being used in two entirely different contexts. The first sentence defines the context and so the brain expects the second sentence to be similar. It is not and it takes a brief time while we "make sense" of it. We do this because of our prior experience with the word "like" in both meanings.
We have formed a model for understanding the meaning of the word "like" in a particular context, and we are confused when the context switches on us in mid sentence. Here's another of Groucho's sayings in the same vein. Could "time flies when you are having fun" mean that you enjoy clocking flies at the bug races?
A paradigm is a model of understanding consistently free of significant contradictions. It guides our expectations and helps us to sort, organize, and classify information. It affects the way information is processed by the brain and the types of questions we ask when trying to understand the world around us incorporating as it does, all of the knowledge and experiences we have acquired since birth.
We all build internal models of our world, which we rely upon to understand it and to assure our survival in it. Our brain uses paradigms to classify, sort, and process information received by the senses. It is consistently free of significant contradictions and even when it isn't, it still works, because we can shift in and out of various paradigms, although not always as well as we would like.
It guides our expectations and helps us to sort, organize, and classify information that we receive from our five senses. A paradigm may be personal or cultural, and we each have many different paradigms for different contexts. Paradigms affect the types of questions we ask as individuals and as cultures, when we are trying to make sense of the world around us. They incorporate the knowledge and experiences we have acquired since birth as we become conditioned to our physical, social, and spiritual environment.
You can write and submit an essay for all or part of your lesson assignment for this lesson. Whether you submit it or not, write, write, write. Let's look at some examples of paradigms as we try to find answers to that food for thought. There are many examples of paradigms at all levels. The better you understand the concept of a paradigm, the easier it should be to think of examples.
Remember that a paradigm is a mental model which helps us to organize and classify information. Why do we usually eat certain foods only at certain times of the day. I'm sure all of us have eaten a plate lunch for breakfast, or had cereal for dinner. But it's not what we usually do. If you walk into a restaurant for dinner, most places will not have corn flakes on the menu.
Food is closely linked with culture and cultural paradigms whether taboos or just preferences. Note that many of us consider eating dogs to be disgusting, but think nothing of eating cows and pigs. In India cows are sacred and could no more be eaten than Fluffy the family cat, and for the same reason. How hungry would you have to be to eat a family pet?
Why do we drive on the right side of the road instead of the left side? Is the right side better, or are we just used to it?
In several island nations worldwide, driving on the left is the paradigm.
6.2 Paradigms, theories, and how they shape a researcher’s approach
The terms paradigm and theory are often used interchangeably in social science, although social scientists do not always agree whether these are identical or distinct concepts. In this text, I will make a clear distinction between the two ideas. Regarding them as analytically distinct will provide a useful framework for understanding the connections between research methods and social scientific ways of thinking. To some, abortion is a medical procedure that should be undertaken at the discretion of each individual woman. To others, abortion is murder and members of society should collectively have the right to decide when, if at all, abortion should be undertaken.
Paradigms and theories go hand in hand to explain concepts in science and assist academics in their work to define different phenomenon. The theory explains the phenomenon based on certain criteria while the paradigm provides the background or the frame that allows a theory to be tested and measured. A paradigm can have a number of theories within its framework and the paradigm acts as a reference point for the theory. These two concepts operate with each other but have their differences. Paradigms and theories are the backbone of science and the discussion points of great masterminds like Einstein and Newton. However, these high and lofty disciplines of science can also be applied to everyday life and help with understanding of the meaning of our environment. The Historian of Science, Thomas Kuhn, gave a basic definition to the meaning of paradigm.
It is not just an assumption, instead theory is based on scientific facts. There are many theories till now to explain various things such as the evolution of the modern world, globalization etc. Hence theories are considered as a creation of new knowledge. Later theories became prominent. And some theories emerged as dominant and got all the attention.
CONCEPT, THEORY, HYPOTHESIS, AND PARADIGM - Differences Explained
Before carrying out the empirical analysis of the role of management culture in corporate social responsibility, identification of the philosophical approach and the paradigm on which the research carried out is based is necessary. Therefore, this chapter deals with the philosophical systems and paradigms of scientific research, the epistemology, evaluating understanding and application of various theories and practices used in the scientific research. The key components of the scientific research paradigm are highlighted. Theories on the basis of which this research was focused on identification of the level of development of the management culture in order to implement corporate social responsibility are identified, and the stages of its implementation are described. Management Culture and Corporate Social Responsibility.
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Терпи, - сказал он. - Терпи. Потом закрыл глаза и глубоко вздохнул. Беккер не сразу почувствовал, что его кто-то подталкивает. Подняв глаза, он увидел старика с усыпанным родинками лицом, который стоял перед ним, намереваясь пройти.
Он искал глазами открытую дверь или ворота - любой выход из этого бесконечного каньона, - но ничего не. Улочка начала сужаться. - Soccoro! - Его голос звучал еле слышно. - Помогите. С обеих сторон на него надвигались стены извивающейся улочки. Беккер искал какой-нибудь перекресток, любой выход, но с обеих сторон были только запертые двери.
А теперь выходи. Но Мидж эта ситуация явно доставляла удовольствие. Она подошла к окну, вертя бумагу перед глазами, чтобы найти лучший угол для падения лунного света. - Мидж… пошли. Это личный кабинет директора.
В ушах у нее раздавался непрекращающийся звон, а все тело словно онемело. Хаос, царивший в комнате оперативного управления, воспринимался ею как отдаленный гул. Люди на подиуме не отрываясь смотрели на экран.
Хейл был необычайно силен. Когда он проволок ее по ковру, с ее ног соскочили туфли. Затем он одним движением швырнул ее на пол возле своего терминала. Сьюзан упала на спину, юбка ее задралась.
К клубу вела узкая аллея. Как только он оказался там, его сразу же увлек за собой поток молодых людей.
Я возьму такси. - Однажды в колледже Беккер прокатился на мотоцикле и чуть не разбился. Он больше не хотел искушать судьбу, кто бы ни сидел за рулем. - Как скажете. - Лейтенант направился к двери.
- Я попросил Фонтейна передать его наследникам Танкадо. - Он взял ее руку и натянул что-то на палец. - Лжец, - засмеялась Сьюзан, открывая. - Я же угада… - Но она замолкла на полуслове. На ее пальце было не кольцо Танкадо.
Над головой автоматически зажглись лампы дневного света. Сьюзан нервничала: прошло уже слишком много времени.