File Name: power transmission methods and devices .zip
It is also known that electrical disturbances may be transmitted through portions of the earth by grounding only one of the poles of the source, and this fact I have made use of in systems which I have devised for the purposes of transmitting through the natural media intelligible signals orpower and which are now familiar; but all experiments and observations heretofore made have tended to confirm the opinion held by the majority of scientific men that the earth, owing to its immense extent, although possessing conducting properties, does not behave in the manner of a conductor of limited dimensions with respect to the disturbances produced, but, on the contrary, much like a vast reservoir or ocean, which while it may be locally disturbed by a commotion of some kind remains unresponsive and quiescent in a large part or as a whole.
Still another fact now of common knowledge is that when electrical waves or oscillations-are impressed upon such a conducting-path as a metallic wire reflection takes place under certain-conditions from the ends of the wire, and in consequence of the interferenceof the impressed and refiected oscillations the, phenomenon of stationary. In any case the existenceof these waves indicates that someiof-ithe outgoing waves 'have reached the boundaries ofth'e conducting-path and have been reflected fromthe same.
Now I have discovered that notwithstanding its vast dimensions and contrary to all observations heretofore made the terrestrial globe may in a large part or as a whole behave toward disturbances impressed upon it in the same manner as a conductor of limited size, this fact being demonstratml by novel phenomena, which I shall hereinafter describe. In the course of certain investigations which I carried on for the purpose of studying the effects of lightning discharges upon the electrical condition of the earth I observed that sensitive receiving instruments arranged so as to be capable of responding to electricaldisturbances created by the discharges at times failed to respond when theyshouldhave done so, and upon inquiring into the causes of this unexpected behavior I discovered it to be due to the character of the electrical waves which were produced in the earth by the lightning discharges and which had nodal regions following at delinite distances the shifting source of the disturbances.
From data obtained in a large number of observations of the maxima and minima of these waves 1 found their length to vary approximately from twenty-live to seventy kilometers, and these results and certain theoretical,deductions led me to the conclusion that waves of this kind may be propagated in all directions over the globe and that they may be of still more widely differing lengths,the extreme limits being imposedby the physical dimensions and properties of the earth.
Recognizing in the existence of these waves an unmistakable evidence that the disturbances created had been conducted from their origin to the mostremote portions of the globe and had been thence reflected, I conceived the idea of producing such waves in the earth by artificial means with the object of utilizing them for many useful purposes for which they are or might be found applicable. This problem was rendered extremely difiicult owing to the immense dimensions of the planet, and consequently enormous movement of electricity or rate at which electrical energy had to be delivered in order to approximate, even in a remote degree, movements or rates wluch are manifestly attained in the displays of electrical forces in nature and which seemed at first unrealizable by any human agencies; but by gradual and continuous improvements of a generator of electrical oscillations, which I have described in my Patents Nos.
With the knowledge of the phenomena discovered by me and the means at command for accomplishingthese results I am enabled not only to carry out many operations by the use of known instruments, but also to offer a solution for many important problems involving the operation or control of remote devices which for want of this knowledge and the absence of these means have heretofore been entirely impossible.
For example, by the use of such a generator of stationary waves and receiving apparatus properly placed and adjusted in any other cality, however remote, it is practicable to transmit intelligible signals or to control or actuate at -will any one or all of such apparatus for many other important and valuable purposes, as for indicating wherever desired the correct time of an observatory or for ascertaining the relative position of a body or distance of the same with reference to a given point or for determining the course of a moving object, such as avessel at sea, the distance traversed by the same or its'speed, or for producing many other useful eflects ata distance dependent 'on the intensity, wave length, direction or velocity of movement, or other feature or property of disturbances of this character.
I shall typically illustrate, themanner of applying my discovery by describing one of the specific uses of the samenamely, the transmission of intelligible signals or messages between distant points-and with this object reference is now made to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 represents diagrammatically the generator which produces stationary waves in the.
In Fig. This source is usually a condenser charged to a high potential and discharged in rapid succession through the primary, as in a type of transformer invented power. C is a spirally-Wound secondary coil within the primary having the end nearer to the latter connected to the ground E and the other end to an elevated terminal E.
The physical constants of coil C, determining its period of vibration, are so chosen and adjusted that the secondary system E G E is in the closest possible resonance with the oscillations impressed upon it by the primary A. It is, moreover. The ground should be made with great care, with the object of reducing its resistance. Instead of being directly grounded, as indicated, the coil C may be joined.
This relation being observed, the terminal E will be made to coincide with the points of maximum pressure in the secondary or excited circuit, and the greatest flow'of electricity will take place in the same. In order to magnify the elec trical movement in the secondary as much as possible, it is essential that its inductive connection with the primary A should not be very intimate, as in ordinary transformers, but loose, so as to permit free oscillationthat is to say, their mutual induction should be The spiral form of coil J secures this advantage, while the turns near the-primary A are subjected to a strong inductive action and develop a high initial electromotive force.
These adjustments and relations being carefully completed'and other constructive features indicated rigorously observed, the elec trical movement produced in the secondary system by the inductive action of the primary A willbe enormously magnified, the increase being directly proportionate to the inductance andfrequency and inversely to the resistance of the secondary system.
The powerful electrical oscillations in the system E C E being communicated to tlH' -;zound cause corresponding vibrations to be propagated to distant and by interference with the outgoing vibrations produce stationary waves the crests 1 and hollows of which lie in parallel circles E relatively to which the ground-plate It may be considered to be the pole. Stated otherwise, the terrestrial conductor is thrown into i resonance with the oscillations impressed i upon it just like a wire.
More tban. For the present it will be suflicient to state that the planet behaves like a perfectly smooth or polished conductor of 'inappreciable resistance with capacity and self induction uniformly. Besides the above three requirements seem to be essential to the establishment of the resonating condition.
The e'arths diameter passing through the pole should be an odd multiple of the quarter wave length-that is, of the ratio between the velocity of lightand four times the frequency of the currents. It is necessary to employ oscillations in which the rate of radiation of energy into space in the form of hertzian or electromagnetic waves is very small. To give an idea, I would say that the frequency should be smaller than twenty thousand per second, though shorter waves might be practicable.
The lowest frequency would appear to be six per second, in which case there will be but one node, at or near the ground-mate. With oscillations still slower the earth, strictly speaking, will not resonate, but simply act as a capacity, and the variation of potential will be more or less uniformovcr its entire surface. The most essential requirement is, however, that irrespective of frequency the wave or wave-train should continue for acertain interval of time, which I have estimated to be not less than one-twelfth or probably 0.
The presence of the stationary waves may be detected in many ways. For instance, a circuit may be connected directly or inductively to the ground and to an elevated terminal and tuned to respond more effectively to the oscillations. Another way is to connect a tuned circuit to the ground at two points lying more or less in a meridian passing through the pole E or, generally stated, to any two points of a different potential. It consists of a cylinder 1 , ofinsulating material, which is i moved at a uniform rate of speed by clockwork or other suitable motive power and is provided with two metal rings F F, upon which bear brushes u and 1 connected, re-.
From the rings F F extend narrow metallic segments s and a, which bythe rotation of the cylinder l. The latter are connected to the terminals T and T of a condenser ll, and it should be understood that they are capable of angular displacement as ordinary brushsupports.
By an adjustment. The plates. On the other hand, if both plates be connect- 5 ed to earth the points of connection must be selected with reference to the difference of potential which it is desired to secure, the strongest effect being of course obtained when the plates are at a distance equal to half the wave length.
In illustration of the operation of the system let it be assumed that alternating electrical impulses from the generator are caused to produce stationary waves in the earth, as above described, and that the receiving apparatus is properlylocatcd with reference to the position of the nodal and ventral regions of the waves.
The speed of rotation of the cylinder D is varied until it is made to turn in synchronism with the alternate impulses of the generator, and the position of the brushes 7 and Z" is adjusted by angular displacement or otherwise, so that they are in contact with the segments S and S during the periods when the impulses are at or near the maximum of their intensity.
These requirements being fulfilled, electrical charges of the same sign will be conveyed to each of the terminals of the condenser, and with each fresh impulse it will be charged to a higher potential. The speed of rotation of the cylinder 61 being adjustable at will, the energy of any number of separate impulses may thus be accumulated in potential form and discharged through the receiver R upon the brush 1: coming in contact with one of the segments f.
It will be understood that the capacity of the condenser should be such as to allow the storing of a much greater amount of energy than is required for the ordinary operation of the receiver.
Since by this method a relatively great amount of energy and in a suitable form may be made available for the operation of a receiver, the latter need not be very sensitive; but when the impulses are very weak or when it is desired to operate a receiver very rapidly any of the well-known sensitive devices capable of responding to very feeble influences may be used in the manner indicated or in other ways.
Under the conditions described it is evident that during the continuance of the stationary waves the receiver will be acted upon by current impulses more or less intense, according to its location with reference to the maxima and minima of said waves; but upon interrupting on" reducing the flow of the current the stationary waves will disappear or diminish in intensity.
Hence a great variety of effects may be produced in a receiver, according to the mode in which the waves are controlled. It is practicable, however, to shift the nodal and ventral regions of the waves at will from the sending-station, as by l varying the length of the waves under observj ance of the above requirements. Evidently the course of a vessel may be easily determined without the use of a compass, as by a circuit coi'mected to the earth at two points, for the effect exerted upon the circuit will be greatest when the plates 1.
If the nodal and ventral regions are maintained in fixed positions, the speed of a vessel carrying a receiving apparatus may be exactly computed from observations of the maxima and minima regions successively traversed. This will be understood when it is stated that the projections of all the nodes and loops on the earths diameter passing through the pole or axis of symmetry of the wave movement are all equal.
Many other useful applications of my discovery will suggest themselves, and in this respect I do not wish to limit myself. Thus the spccilic plan herein described of producing the stationary waves might be departed from. For examplc, the circuit which impresses the powerful oscillations upon the earth might be con nccted to the latter at two points.
In this application. I desire it to be understood that such novel features as are not herein specifically claimed will form the subjects of subsequent applications. What I now claim is- 1. The improvement in the art of transmitting electrical energy to a distance which coir sists in establishing stationary electrical waves in the earth, as set forth.
The improvement in the art of transmitl y impressing III ting electrical energy to a distance which consists 1n lmpressmg upon the earth electrical oscillations of such character as to produce stationary electrical waves therein, as set forth.
The improvement in the art of transmitting and utilizing electrical energy which consists in establishing stationary electrical waves in the natural conducting media, and operating thereby one or more receiving devices remote from the source of energy, as set forth.
The improvement'in the art of transmitting and utilizing electrical energy, which consists in establishing in the natural conducting media, stationary electricalwaves, and varying the length of such'waves, as herein set forth 6.
The improvementin the art of transmitting and utilizing electrical energy,which consists in establishing in the natural conducting media stationary electrical waves and shifting 3 the nodal and ventral regions of these waves,. Patented April 18, Application filed May 16, Renewed Tune 17, Serial No. It consists of a cylinder 1 , ofinsulating material, which is i moved at a uniform rate of speed by clockwork or other suitable motive power and is provided with two metal rings F F, upon which bear brushes u and 1 connected, re- spectively, to the terminal plates l and l.
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History of electric power transmission
Nearly all machines have some kind of power and motion transmission from an input source. This is usually an electric motor or an internal combustion engine which typically provides rotary driving torque via an input shaft — coupling combination. As discussed earlier shafts and couplings are an integral part of the power transmission for modern age engineering product designs such as machinery. Since power transmission shafts are widely used in almost all types of mechanical equipment design, the design is critical for the safe and long life of the machines. Sub-components such as couplings, gears, pulleys, sprockets etc are mounted on to a shaft to transmit power or rotation via the central portion of the component called hub along with retention devices such as keys and splines. Types of connections and components required to be used along the shaft axis are dictated by the functional requirements of the product and depends on the following factors.
Machine is a device consisting of various elements arranged together 2) Machine elements used for transmitting the power. Alternative method, inner ring is.
Download Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution pdf. To help you improve rotating equipment performance, we have an extensive range of products and support services. PDF In this paper, we have presented the concept of wireless transmission i.
Part of the Mechanisms and Machine Science book series Mechan. Machine Science, volume
The power is transmitted from one shaft to the other by means of belts, chains and gears. The belts and ropes are flexible members which are used where distance between the two shafts is large. The chains also have flexibility but they are preferred for intermediate distances. The gears are used when the shafts are very close with each other. This type of drive is also called positive drive because there is no slip.
Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to perform useful work. Power is defined formally as units of energy per unit time. In SI units:.
For RENK AG, a worldwide leading supplier of high-quality products of power transmission engineering this step means a supplement of the own product range, an addition to capacity for the assembly of large gear units as well as the utilization of synergy effects in the field of service activities all over the word. Power Transmission and Distribution Systems Energy is a valuable asset. Power Transmission And Distribution.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant , to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is part of electricity delivery , known as the " power grid " in North America , or just "the grid". Efficient transmission involves reducing the currents by stepping up the voltage prior to transmission, and stepping it down at a substation at the far end.
Strengthen your competitive advantage by ensuring your sales and customer service staff are adequately equipped to support your customers by providing solutions in a way that builds loyalty and trust. Compact structure, suitable for short-distance transmission; 2. The wave length of the voltage and current of the power can be determined by the equation given below, f.