File Name: health locus of control and health behaviour .zip
Some correlates of health locus of control among multicultural individuals
Locus of control is the degree to which people believe that they, as opposed to external forces beyond their influence , have control over the outcome of events in their lives. The concept was developed by Julian B. Rotter in , and has since become an aspect of personality psychology.
A person's " locus " plural "loci", Latin for "place" or "location" is conceptualized as internal a belief that one can control one's own life or external a belief that life is controlled by outside factors which the person cannot influence, or that chance or fate controls their lives.
Individuals with a strong internal locus of control believe events in their life are primarily a result of their own actions: for example, when receiving exam results, people with an internal locus of control tend to praise or blame themselves and their abilities. People with a strong external locus of control tend to praise or blame external factors such as the teacher or the exam. Locus of control has generated much research in a variety of areas in psychology. The construct is applicable to such fields as educational psychology , health psychology , and clinical psychology.
Debate continues whether specific or more global measures of locus of control will prove to be more useful in practical application. Careful distinctions should also be made between locus of control a concept linked with expectancies about the future and attributional style a concept linked with explanations for past outcomes , or between locus of control and concepts such as self-efficacy.
Locus of control is one of the four dimensions of core self-evaluations — one's fundamental appraisal of oneself — along with neuroticism , self-efficacy , and self-esteem. Locus of control is the framework of Rotter's social-learning theory of personality.
In he published an article in Psychological Monographs which summarized over a decade of research by Rotter and his students , much of it previously unpublished. In , Herbert M. Lefcourt defined the perceived locus of control: " Early work on the topic of expectations about control of reinforcement had been performed in the s by James and Phares prepared for unpublished doctoral dissertations supervised by Rotter at The Ohio State University.
Additional research led to the hypothesis that typical expectancy shifts were displayed more often by those who attributed their outcomes to ability, whereas those who displayed atypical expectancy were more likely to attribute their outcomes to chance.
This was interpreted that people could be divided into those who attribute to ability an internal cause versus those who attribute to luck an external cause. Bernard Weiner argued that rather than ability-versus-luck, locus may relate to whether attributions are made to stable or unstable causes.
Rotter , has discussed problems and misconceptions in others' use of the internal-versus-external construct. Internals tend to attribute outcomes of events to their own control. People who have internal locus of control believe that the outcomes of their actions are results of their own abilities. Internals believe that their hard work would lead them to obtain positive outcomes.
Externals attribute outcomes of events to external circumstances. Such people tend to blame others rather than themselves for their lives' outcomes. It should not be thought, however, that internality is linked exclusively with attribution to effort and externality with attribution to luck as Weiner's work — see below — makes clear. This has obvious implications for differences between internals and externals in terms of their achievement motivation, suggesting that internal locus is linked with higher levels of need for achievement.
Due to their locating control outside themselves, externals tend to feel they have less control over their fate. People with an external locus of control tend to be more stressed and prone to clinical depression. Internals were believed by Rotter to exhibit two essential characteristics: high achievement motivation and low outer-directedness.
This was the basis of the locus-of-control scale proposed by Rotter in , although it was based on Rotter's belief that locus of control is a single construct. Since , Rotter's assumption of uni-dimensionality has been challenged, with Levenson for example arguing that different dimensions of locus of control such as beliefs that events in one's life are self-determined, or organized by powerful others and are chance-based must be separated. Weiner's early work in the s suggested that orthogonal to the internality-externality dimension, differences should be considered between those who attribute to stable and those who attribute to unstable causes.
This new, dimensional theory meant that one could now attribute outcomes to ability an internal stable cause , effort an internal unstable cause , task difficulty an external stable cause or luck an external, unstable cause.
Although this was how Weiner originally saw these four causes, he has been challenged as to whether people see luck for example as an external cause, whether ability is always perceived as stable, and whether effort is always seen as changing. Indeed, in more recent publications e. Weiner, he uses different terms for these four causes such as "objective task characteristics" instead of "task difficulty" and "chance" instead of "luck".
Psychologists since Weiner have distinguished between stable and unstable effort, knowing that in some circumstances effort could be seen as a stable cause especially given the presence of words such as "industrious" in English. Regarding locus of control, there is another type of control that entails a mix among the internal and external types.
People that have the combination of the two types of locus of control are often referred to as Bi-locals. People that have Bi-local characteristics are known to handle stress and cope with their diseases more efficiently by having the mixture of internal and external locus of control. The most widely used questionnaire to measure locus of control is the item plus six filler items , forced-choice scale of Rotter However, this is not the only questionnaire; Bialer's item scale for children predates Rotter's work.
One of the earliest psychometric scales to assess locus of control using a Likert -type scale, in contrast to the forced-choice alternative measure in Rotter's scale was that devised by W.
James for his unpublished doctoral dissertation, supervised by Rotter at Ohio State University; however, this remains unpublished. Many measures of locus of control have appeared since Rotter's scale. These were reviewed by Furnham and Steele and include those related to health psychology , industrial and organizational psychology   and those specifically for children such as the Stanford Preschool Internal-External Scale   for three- to six-year-olds.
Furnham and Steele cite data suggesting that the most reliable, valid questionnaire for adults is the Duttweiler scale. For a review of the health questionnaires cited by these authors, see "Applications" below. The Duttweiler Internal Control Index ICI addresses perceived problems with the Rotter scales, including their forced-choice format, susceptibility to social desirability and heterogeneity as indicated by factor analysis.
She also notes that, while other scales existed in to measure locus of control, "they appear to be subject to many of the same problems". The ICI assess variables pertinent to internal locus: cognitive processing, autonomy, resistance to social influence, self-confidence and delay of gratification.
A small student-subject validation study indicated that the scale had good internal consistency reliability a Cronbach's alpha of 0. Abramson et al. The topic of attribution theory introduced to psychology by Fritz Heider has had an influence on locus of control theory, but there are important historical differences between the two models.
Attribution theorists have been predominantly social psychologists , concerned with the general processes characterizing how and why people make the attributions they do, whereas locus of control theorists have been concerned with individual differences.
Significant to the history of both approaches are the contributions made by Bernard Weiner in the s. Before this time, attribution theorists and locus of control theorists had been largely concerned with divisions into external and internal loci of causality. Weiner added the dimension of stability-instability and later controllability , indicating how a cause could be perceived as having been internal to a person yet still beyond the person's control.
The stability dimension added to the understanding of why people succeed or fail after such outcomes. Although not part of Weiner's model, a further dimension of attribution, that of globality-specificity, was added by Abramson, Seligman and Teasdale. Locus of control's best known application may have been in the area of health psychology , largely due to the work of Kenneth Wallston. Scales to measure locus of control in the health domain were reviewed by Furnham and Steele in In discussing applications of the concept to health psychology Furnham and Steele refer to Claire Bradley's work, linking locus of control to the management of diabetes mellitus.
Empirical data on health locus of control in a number of fields was reviewed by Norman and Bennett in ; they note that data on whether certain health-related behaviors are related to internal health locus of control have been ambiguous. They note that some studies found that internal health locus of control is linked with increased exercise, but cite other studies which found a weak or no relationship between exercise behaviors such as jogging and internal health locus of control.
A similar ambiguity is noted for data on the relationship between internal health locus of control and other health-related behaviors such as breast self-examination , weight control and preventive-health behavior.
Of particular interest are the data cited on the relationship between internal health locus of control and alcohol consumption. Norman and Bennett note that some studies that compared alcoholics with non-alcoholics suggest alcoholism is linked to increased externality for health locus of control; however, other studies have linked alcoholism with increased internality.
Similar ambiguity has been found in studies of alcohol consumption in the general, non-alcoholic population. They are more optimistic in reviewing the literature on the relationship between internal health locus of control and smoking cessation , although they also point out that there are grounds for supposing that powerful-others and internal-health loci of control may be linked with this behavior.
It is thought that, rather than being caused by one or the other, that alcoholism is directly related to the strength of the locus, regardless of type, internal or external. They argue that a stronger relationship is found when health locus of control is assessed for specific domains than when general measures are taken. Overall, studies using behavior-specific health locus scales have tended to produce more positive results.
They also argue that health locus of control is better at predicting health-related behavior if studied in conjunction with health value the value people attach to their health , suggesting that health value is an important moderator variable in the health locus of control relationship. For example, Weiss and Larsen found an increased relationship between internal health locus of control and health when health value was assessed.
During the s and s, Whyte correlated locus of control with the academic success of students enrolled in higher-education courses. Students who were more internally controlled believed that hard work and focus would result in successful academic progress, and they performed better academically. Those students who were identified as more externally controlled believing that their future depended upon luck or fate tended to have lower academic-performance levels.
Cassandra B. Whyte researched how control tendency influenced behavioral outcomes in the academic realm by examining the effects of various modes of counseling on grade improvements and the locus of control of high-risk college students.
Rotter also looked at studies regarding the correlation between gambling and either an internal or external locus of control. For internals, gambling is more reserved. When betting, they primarily focus on safe and moderate wagers. Externals, however, take more chances and, for example, bet more on a card or number that has not appeared for a certain period, under the notion that this card or number has a higher chance of occurring.
Other fields to which the concept has been applied include industrial and organizational psychology , sports psychology , educational psychology and the psychology of religion. Richard Kahoe has published work in the latter field, suggesting that intrinsic religious orientation correlates positively and extrinsic religious orientation correlates negatively with internal locus. The authors distinguished between an active spiritual-health locus of control in which "God empowers the individual to take healthy actions"  and a more passive spiritual-health locus of control where health is left up to God.
In industrial and organizational psychology , it has been found that internals are more likely to take positive action to change their jobs rather than merely talk about occupational change than externals.
Locus of control has also been applied to the field of consumer research. For example, Martin, Veer and Pervan examined how the weight locus of control of women i.
They found that women who believe they can control their weight "internals" , respond most favorably to slim models in advertising, and this favorable response is mediated by self-referencing. In contrast, women who feel powerless about their weight "externals" , self-reference larger-sized models, but only prefer larger-sized models when the advertisement is for a non-fattening product.
For fattening products, they exhibit a similar preference for larger-sized models and slim models. The weight locus of control measure was also found to be correlated with measures for weight control beliefs and willpower.
Locus of control has been linked to political ideology. In the U. Presidential election, research of college students found that those with an internal locus of control were substantially more likely to register as a Republican , while those with an external locus of control were substantially more likely to register as a Democrat. Consistent with these findings, Kaye Sweetser found that Republicans significantly displayed greater internal locus of control than Democrats and Independents.
Locus of control
Prev Chronic Dis ; Among adults, external locus of control is associated with negative health outcomes, whereas internal locus of control is associated with favorable outcomes. Few studies examined these associations among youths. The objective of our study was to determine how locus of control relates to health care use, medication adherence, missed school, and readiness for transition to adult medical care for youths with chronic conditions. Participants at a camp for youths aged 6 to 17 years with chronic health conditions completed a survey measuring locus of control, readiness for transition to adult care, and medication adherence. Their parents completed a separate part of the survey about health care use and missed school days in the past year.
Locus of control is the degree to which people believe that they, as opposed to external forces beyond their influence , have control over the outcome of events in their lives. The concept was developed by Julian B. Rotter in , and has since become an aspect of personality psychology. A person's " locus " plural "loci", Latin for "place" or "location" is conceptualized as internal a belief that one can control one's own life or external a belief that life is controlled by outside factors which the person cannot influence, or that chance or fate controls their lives. Individuals with a strong internal locus of control believe events in their life are primarily a result of their own actions: for example, when receiving exam results, people with an internal locus of control tend to praise or blame themselves and their abilities. People with a strong external locus of control tend to praise or blame external factors such as the teacher or the exam.
Metrics details. Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany.
Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals.
Cheryl L. Holt, Eddie M. Clark, Matthew W. Kreuter, Darcell P. Scharff, Does locus of control moderate the effects of tailored health education materials?
Health locus of control defined as individual beliefs based on past experiences in health issues and having external or internal control over them, could affect health. Health locus of control plays a role in health behaviors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health locus of control and health behavior in emergency medical personnel in Ahvaz during This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, which began in August for a period of six months on emergency medical personnel in Ahvaz who were selected randomly. The level of significance for all statistical tests was set at 0. Health behaviors were very good in terms of personal health Furthermore,
Background: Health promoting behaviors are amongst the best methods through which people can maintain and control their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was the prediction of health promoting behaviors through the health locus of control in a sample of adolescents in Bandar Abbas, in the south of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the Wallston questionnaire and adolescent health promoting scale were used for data collection. Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data by the SPSS 19 software. Results: The mean age of the subjects was Overall, Conclusions: Strengthening the internal locus of control and following up the advices of individuals like physicians and health experts are recommended to promote the health behaviors of students.
The purpose of the study was to determine health-related behaviors, profile of health locus of control HLC , and to assess the relationships between these constructs among patients suffering from chronic somatic diseases. Three-hundred adult patients suffering from various chronic diseases participated in the study. The patients' mean age was No statistically significant differences were found between the different clinical groups in health-related behavior, acceptance of illness, internal HLC or chance HLC. Patients with neurologic conditions showed slightly lower powerful others HLC than did some other clinical groups.
Powerful Others Health Locus of Control was correlated with depression, anxiety, hostility, and recent physical symptoms while Chance Health Locus of Control CHLC was correlated with all of the above as well as chronic physical symptoms and major health problems. When controlling for a variety of health risk factors viz. Results support the cognitive model of mental health which emphasize the importance of adaptive beliefs.
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